Survey of Particulate Matter Pollution in Ambient Air of Azandarian Stone Crushing Units
Soheil Sobhan Ardakani*(Corresponding Author)
Javad Nainian 
Mineral activities that have long been considered by humans due to the importance of supplying raw materials have caused many changes in the environment, including air pollution particulate matter. This study was conducted to assess the realesed pollutants from Azandarian stone crushing units on the ambient air quality.
Particulate matters were collected from 8 selected stations included 5 stone crushing units stack and 3 environmental analysis stations during two seasons in 2013. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS.
The results showed that maximum mean concentration of particulate matters in the summer and autumn seasons in stone crushing units stack samples were 198.78±68.59 mg/m3 and 199.67±9.00 mg/m3, respectively, and were significantly lower than Iran DOE permissible limits. Also, the mean concentrations of PM2.5 in all environmental monitoring stations except station 3 in the summer season, and the mean concentrations of PM10 in all environmental monitoring stations except station 2 in the autumn season were significantly higher and lower than EPA permissible limits, respectively.
Due to the mean concentrations of particulate matters emitted from the Azandarian stone crushing units stack and mean concentrations of PM10 measured in environmental monitoring were significantly lower than national and international permissible limits, so can be admitted the air pollution control equipments such as industrial scrubbers and cyclones are relative efficiency.
Key Words: Air pollution, PM2.5, PM10, Silica, Azandarian.
A Review of Biotic Indices for Heavy Metals in Polluted Environment
Jaber Aazami *)Corresponding Author)
Naser KianiMehr 2
The life of fauna and flora was threatened by heavy metals, one of the most problems in the environment. Nowdays, in the world biotic indices were applied to reduce and modify of different pollutants while in Iran, purification of polluted environment was done with physic-chemical methods. Physic-chemical methods annihilate the biodiversity, pollute the environment and also need to lots of time, cost, equipment and expertise. So, the developed countries presented biotic methods for identification, monitoring, survey and purification because of many advantages including; more precision, less cost, environmental friendly and less equipment. The aims of this article were a review of bio-indices and choose manner of polluted biological modifier e.g. phytoremediation that todays, it is developing.
Key words: Heavy Metals, Environmental Pollution, Biotic Indices.
The Quality Variation of Groundwater in Malayer City with an Emphasis on the Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on the Quality of Water
Mohamad Sakizadeh* (Corresponding author)
The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of groundwater in a semi-arid environment area in Malayer,Hamedan Province, with respect to a four-year monitoring data using water quality index(WQI) with an emphasis on the agricultural land use 's impacts on the water quality. The monitoring data related to 14 water quality parameters associated with 26 sampling wells in 2012-2013 and 19 sampling wells in 2010-2011 were provided. The amount of chlorine residue in 50%percent's of the stations was zero. In addition, the fluoride in 14 stations was less than 0.5 mg/l and for 80.7 percent's of the stations the nitrate values were higher than 13 mg/l. Although, there was a significant difference between the level of some parameters between these two time periods, however, this difference was not that much noticeable.76.9 percent's of the stations were slightly to moderately polluted based on the results of water quality index. As a whole, the amount of nitrate in 21 wells (80.7 percent) was higher than the human induced standard level (13 mg/l) and in two wells were higher than the WHO permissible level (40 mg/l).The regional change of nitrate was increasing from North West to the south east part of the area. Although the overall quality of groundwater has not deteriorated according to WQI but there is a health risk of water for local people especially that is associated with the results of nitrate in the study area.
Key words: Nitrate, Fluoride, Groundwater, Malayer
Survey The Effect of Cadmium on Dry Weight, Growth and Absorbed of Species Tree of Platanus orientalis
Sahar Tabibian*(Corresponding Author)
Heavy metals such as Cadmium are created by major urban, industrial and agricultural activities and cause pollution. According to increasing need to forestry in Iran, conducting a comprehensive research on fast-growing Platanus orientalisspecies and its role in absorbing heavy metals like Cadmium is necessary. For this purpose, the leaves and stems of plantain and soil samples from the downtown of Tehran. Leaves and stems of plantain and soil samples outside of Tehran as controls were selected randomly and were then harvested. Shoot dry weight and accumulation of cadmium in the plant was tested. The results showed that the concentration of cadmium, shoot dry weight was significantly reduced, yet significant differences between shoot dry weight was observed in the control area and the downtown area. The results showed that the concentration of cadmium, shoot dry weight was significantly reduced, yet significant differences between shoot dry weight was observed in the control area and downtown area of Tehran. The concentration of cadmium in leaves and stems in the control area with the downtown area has significant difference at 95 percent.
Key words: Absorption, Accumulation, Cadmium, Platanus orientalis.
Investigation of Outdoor Recreation Needs and Preferences of Visitors in Sorkhe Hesar Forest Park and Its Comparison with Sisangan Forest Park
Saeedeh Eskandari*(Corresponding Author)
Jafar Oladi Ghadikolaei
Nowadays, assessment of the outdoor recreation demand in forest parks is very important to prepare the successful outdoor recreation plans and to schedule the facilities development in these plans. Recognition of visitor’s economic- social needs is essential to estimate outdoor recreation demand, because visitor’s socio-economic conditions have the great effect on mall selection to use of it. In this study outdoor recreation demand of Sorkhe Hesar forest park in east of Tehran was evaluated by interviewing and completing of questionnaire in the spring. Obtained results of this study were compared with the results of another study done in Sisangan forest park to investigate visitor’s outdoor recreation demand changes during thirty years. Comparison of outdoor recreation demand and investigation of visitor’s needs in in-city forest parks (Sorkhe Hesar) and out-city forest parks (Sisangan) showed that visitor’s outdoor recreation demand has not changed during thirty years. In addition, visitor’s outdoor recreation demand is similar in in-city forest parks (Sorkhe Hesar) and out-city forest parks (Sisangan) (except demands that depend on visitor’s distance) and visitor’s major purpose is rest in the healthy environment and inspiration in the healthy air. Finally we suggest that outdoor recreation planners consider the visitor's demand and tendency to create and develop the forest parks.
Key words: Outdoor Recreation Demand, Visitors, Forest Park, Sorkhe Hesar, Sisangan.
Ecological Capability Evaluation to Aim Urban Development Using Geographical Information System (Case Study: Minoo Island)
Soolmaz Dashti*(Corresponding Author)
Jafar Morshedi 
Nowadays, many of our Iranian cities because of its unlimited expansion and without planning, due to encroaching on the natural environment and have been destroying and have created problems the environment in consequence of their establishment and any time or in any place. In principal the creation of new towns is in order to responds the need such as get the overflow population, provide housing and many other factors and was not considerable to the origin of them in development process and environmental planning. The Minoo Island in Khuzestan province is along with south of Khoramshahr between 48o 12' and 48o 15' east longitude and 30o 19' to 30o 22' north latitude.
To identify the potential for urban development in Minoo Island, have been used systemic analysis and Makhdoum ecological model and GIS tools. In this Method, first the area biological resources were identified. Digital data along with other descriptive data to create the database give to ArcGis system. By combining and overlying the data layer in ArcGis system, the ecological unit map with unit characteristic was created and then region feasibility attempted and suitable area for urban development were identified.
The study showed with considered the all Makhdoum model ecological parameters, 85 percent of region has a suitable potential with (grade 2) and 14 % for region has not good potential for urban development. It is suggested in the strategic planning of urban development, physical goals with economics, social and cultural goals integrated coordinated and consistent proceed. In this regard, the main axis of urban planning in Minoo Island with prioritization of upgrading of physical infrastructure and social welfare for environmental sustainable development and wealth generating must be made.
Keywords: Capability Evaluation, Urban Development, Minoo Island,GI.
A Review of Rural Land Use Planning Models
Azade Mehri* (Corresponding Author)
Nowadays, environmental crises caused by the irrational use and land conversion, have made ecological evaluation and land use planning ever more essential. Different methods are used in land evaluation and land use planning. In this paper, land use planning models have been reviewed and techniques with different objectives, applications, and land uses have been identified. Reviewing the existing land use planning models included the analysis and evaluation of their main characteristics. Land use planning models have been studied in five groups, including expert systems, multi-criteria evaluation, mathematical programming, mixed techniques, and spatial simulation models. Each of these groups has several sub-groups and the models studied in this paper may constitute Decision Support Systems (DSSs) that are usually integrated into a GIS. The aim of this paper is to analyze and offer a structured overview towards facilitating selection of a particular and appropriate method for any land use planning application.
Keywords: Land Use Planning, Expert Systems, Multi-Criteria Evaluation, Mathematical Programming, Spatial Simulation Models.
Introducing Community Garden and Its Role in Sustainable Urban Development
SajjadShamshiri* (Corresponding Author)
Urbanization and urban development is accompanied by serious challenges. Achieving sustainability in this environment is very difficult due to the diversity of interest groups. Among this, occurred a small but effective movement during the same conflict evolved in urban environments, a reflection of the aspects of sustainable development are considered. Community Garden endogenous movement, micro and limit the role and function at different scales is extremely diverse. Therefore to serve in the process of sustainable urban development. In this context, in attempts to analyze the literature survey, a systematic method based on lifecycle affected by attempts to investigate the nature, role and functions of the community gardens. Community-based survey shows that gardens are the multiple functions that reflect a range of strategies win – win. Community Garden are very affordable but very effective tool for urban administrators(economic, social, environmental) that can provide multiple functions will play their role in improving the quality of urban life.community gardens is clear example of achieve great changes in small movement, based on Chaos Theory that emphasizes the minimum conveniences.
Keywords: Community Garden, Participation, urban agriculture, local community.
Surveying Green roofs’ Components
Elma Mohammadi* (Corresponding Author)
Seyed hamed Mirkarimi
In recent years, there has been a great attitude toward creating green roofs in the world and our country. To fulfil consumer expectations different green systems has being introduced. As a result, there are variety of ways in order to implicate green roofs that can make it hard to decide which one to choose. In this paper after surveying and introducing some of the most used ways of creating a green roof and their components, indispensable layers of a green roof were identified and a generalized scheme of them was introduced and shown. These essential layers were respectively: roofing membrane, waterproof membrane, drainage, soil filter, growing medium or soil, and plants. At the end, given that the cost of creating a green roof is one of the important obstacles in its’ propagation, some solutions were offered. Introducing variant layers and their applications will help to choose a suitable structure for a green roof. This choice must be taken according to local conditions like climate.
Keywords: Community Garden, Participation, urban agriculture, local community.
- Associate professor Department of the Environment, College of Basic Sciences, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran. *(Corresponding Author).
 - MSc Graduate Department of the Environment, College of Basic Sciences, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran.
- Assistant Professors, Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan *(Corresponding Author).
- Master Student, Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan.
1- Assistant professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.*(*(Corresponding Author).
1- Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.*(Corresponding Author).
 - Department of Forestry , Lahijan Branch ,Islamic Azad University ,Lahijan ,Iran.
- Assistant Professor, Forest Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran. *(Corresponding Author)
1- Associate Professor, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
- Professor of Natural Resources Management, Environment Protection Organization, Tehran, Iran.
1- MSc of Department of Environmental Management, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.
- Assistant Professor, Department of Environment, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran. *(Corresponding Author)
- Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.
1- PhD Student in Environmental Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Golestan, Iran
- Associate Professor, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Golestan, Iran.*(Corresponding Author)
1- Faculty Member of landscape engineering department, Sayyed Jamaleddin Asadabadi University, Asadabad, Iran.
- Faculty Member of environemental design department, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.*(Corresponding Author)
1- M.Sc. In Environmental science, College of Fisheries and Environmental Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. *(Corresponding Author)
- Assistant professor, Department of Environment, College of Fisheries and Environmental Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources