ساختمان خاک پناه، ایده‏ای هم‏ساز با محیط زیست

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد انرژی و معماری، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام *(مسئول مکاتبات).

چکیده

انتشار آلودگی‏های شیمیایی ناشی از تولید مصالح ساختمانی، تولید دی‏اکسیدکربن و ذرات معلق پخش شده در هوا که ناشی از تولید و حمل و نقل مصالح ساختمانی به محل های مورد نظر است و نیز تولید زباله‏های ساختمانی از جمله موارد عمده آلودگی‏های محیط‏زیستی تحت تاثیر صنعت ساختمان می­باشد. همچنین مصرف بسیار زیاد سوخت­ها و منابع طبیعی جهت تامین سرمایش و گرمایش ساختمان، آینده تامین منابع مورد نیاز نسل آینده و محیط‏زیست را به خطر می­اندازد. از آن گذشته، حذف بخشی از زمین بکر در مناطق خاص و جایگزینی آن با توده ساختمانی، اکوسیستم آن منطقه را برهم می­زند. بنابراین ضروری است تا راهبردهای طراحی در ساختمان­های جدید، با هدف هم‏سازی محیط‏زیستی، جهت­گیری شود. جهت تحقق این هدف، طراحی ساختمان با ایده­ی هم­زیستی با محیط زیست مدتی است که در بین جوامع مختلف مطرح شده است.
ساختمان­های خاک پناه از جمله نمونه­هایی است که در راستای بهره‏وری انرژی و حفظ محیط زیست، ایده­ی کاهش مصرف انرژی ساختمان و تامین آسایش ساکنان را در کنار هم­زیستی مسالمت آمیز با محیط زیست، دنبال می­کند. مطالعه­ی حاضر به بحث و بررسی چگونگی سازماندهی این ساختمان و اثرات محیط‏زیستی آن در ارتباط با محیط پیرامون می­پردازد. با توجه به قابلیت­هایی که در این گونه­ی معماری در زمینه­ی کاهش میزان مصرف سوخت و انرژی و همچنین سازگاری با محیط زیست وجود دارد، می­توان آن را جهت بهره‏گیری بیش‏تر در مقاصد معماری و شهرسازی عصر حاضر پیشنهاد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Providing optimal methods for water treatment and waste water containing sulfur color

 

Sahar Tabibian [1](Corresponding Author)

tsahart@yahoo.com

Azam pirkarami [2]

 

Abstract

Sulfur dyes are inexpensive and mainly used for coloring cellulosic textile materials or mixtures of cellulosic fibers. Sodium sulfite is relatively inexpensive and considered as traditional reducing agents and used for sulfur dyes and dyeing, But touch it, is toxic and dangerous.Using it may be Leave harmful residues on fabrics completed and and produces wastewater which it’s treatment is difficult and damage to the environment.

Textile industries are met with high cost of water and wastewater treatment, as well as stringent environmental regulations.

In this study, a variety of methods, including methods of physical, chemical and biological treatment of industrial wastewater containing paint application of sulfur was investigated

This study concludes with recommendations for additional measures to improve treatment processes that can be done from both a technical and economic point of view.

 

Key Words: Sulfur dyes, Waste water, Chemical and physical methods, Biological methods.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An investigation on PROMETHEE and ELECTRE outranking methods in environmental decision-making of oil and petrochemical industries

 

Solmaz Amoushahi [3])Corresponding Author)

Solmazamooshahi@gmail.com

Farhad Nejadkoorki [4]

  Sharareh Pourebrahim [5]

 

Abstract

Nowadays one of the most important global issues is environmental problems that can cause harm to human and other organisms. Because of these problems we need to find strategies for solving them. One of the most important problems in the world is the pollution produced by different industries like oil industry that has a significant role in the nations economic and progress. There are many solutions and methods for surveying and mitigating the industries effects.

Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) is one of these methods that order alternatives based on their importance. Ranking problems consist in rank ordering of all alternatives from the worst to the best, looking at their evaluations on the considered criteria. In present study two more important outranking methods (PROMETHEE and ELECTRE) were assessed and their advantages and disadvantages were surveyed. Also a study was done in Arak petrochemical industry by PROMETHEE method as a case study and construction phase alternatives were ranked by mentioned method.

Case study investigation and review on other studies showed that the PROMEHTEE method because of some features like being easy to use, understandable, Ability to cope with uncertainty, importance the decision makers, ability of visual representation, validity and flexibility is more applicable than ELECTRE. 

So the suggested method can be applied for making environmental decisions and also oil and petrochemical industries that simultaneously deal with qualitative and quantitative data and uncertainty. The researchers hope that it would have desirable results.

Key words: Environmental Decision Making, Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Oil and petrochemical industries, PROMETHEE, ELECTRE.

 

 

Nanotechnologyand reduction in air pollutionEmissions

 

 

Narges Arab [6]  (Corresponding author)

Narges.arab87@gmail.com

Sara Haghighimanesh[7]

 

 

Abstract

The issue of environmental pollution has become a significant issue in today’s world. Environmental pollution, mainly caused by toxicantsm, includes air, water, and soil pollution. The results of this contamination are not only destroying biodiversity, but also endanger human health. Nanotechnology offers many advantages to improve existing environmental technologies and creates new technology that is better than current technology. In this sense, nanotechnology has three main capabilities that can be applied in the fields of environment, including the cleanup (remediation) and purification, the detection of contaminants (sensing and detection), and the pollution prevention.

Advances in nano-scale science and engineering showed that many of the current problems involving air quality can be solved. This article gives an overview of application of nano materials in air purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nano-scale materials and processes for reducing emissions.

Key words: Nanotechnology, Air Pollution, Environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investigation and Comparison Capabilities of Common Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment and ELECTRE-TRI Multi-Criteria Decision Method

 

Mojtaba Barzehkar [8](Corresponding Author)

m.barzehkar2@gmail.com

Nargess Kargari [9]

Naghmeh Mobarghaee Dinan [10]

 

Abstract

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of identifying, predicting and mitigating the negative impacts of development projects on physico-Chemical, biological, socio-economic and cultural environments. The main purpose of EIA process is to inform decision makers of the likely impacts of a proposal before a decision is made. EIA provides an opportunity to identify key issues and stakeholders early in the life of a proposal so that potentially adverse impacts can be addressed before final approval decisions are made. There are different methods for implementing an EIA project. The best method is one, which can quantify the impacts and assess the impacts rapidly. This paper attempts to investigate and compare capabilities of the EIA prevalent methods including questionnaire, matrix, system analysis, maps overlay, networks and ELECTRE-TRI multi-criteria decision method. This paper indicates that ELECTRE_TRI is an appropriate method for EIA projects. However, the final judgment of the selection of EIA method depends on the EIA experts opinions.

Key words: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), ELECTRE-TRI Multi-Criteria Decision Method, Environmental Impact Assessment Methodologies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earth-Sheltered Building, an Idea Compatible with Environment

 

Fatemeh Akrami Abarghuie[11](Corresponding Author)

nafisse.akrami@gmail.com

 

Abstract

Chemical pollution caused by the production of building materials, carbon dioxide emissions and particulate matter released into the air, including the major environmental pollution affecting the construction industry. Also a lot of fuel and natural resources consumes to provide heating and cooling of buildings, financing future of generations and the environment at risk. Moreover, the removal part of virgin land in certain areas and replace it with a special mass, disrupts the ecosystem of the region. Therefore, it is essential to design strategies in new buildings, with the aim of environmental harmony. So to achieve this aim, the design of the building with the idea of compatibility with the environment has long been considered among different communities. Earth-Sheltered Building such examples that follows energy idea for reducing building energy consumption. This study discusses how to organize the building and its environmental impacts associated with the environment is concerned. Depending on the capabilities this type of architecture to reduce the consumption of fuel and energy, as well as environmental compatibility, it can propose for contemporary architectural and urban purposes.

Key words: Earth-Sheltered Building, Ecological Design, Environment, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Reduce Fuel Consumption.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investigation Education Methods for Citizens the implementation and operation of wastewater

 

Akramolmolok Lahijanian[12](Corresponding Author)

lahijanian@hotmail.com

Zohre mohamadi [13]

 

Abstract

This research aims to increase citizen participation in the implementation and operation of wastewater projects, through the implementation of training practices in order to reduce the technical, economic, social and environmental issues were investigated. This research was a descriptive - analytical techniques using a questionnaire and completing the form field by the citizens .The population of area study is 384 samples and also waste water company.

Data Software SPSS18 in both descriptive and inferential statistics was analyzed. To evaluate data normality test, Kolmogorov - Smirnov one-sample t-test for hypothesis testing, when both test and Spearman correlation test, using the proposed two hypotheses were confirmed.

The assumptions include Public participation in the implementation and operation of the sewage effective. Implementation of teaching practices in the implementation and operation of the sewage effective.

The results show that there is a relationship between the level of awareness and education. Also whatever is the best job in the community's awareness of the wastewater collection, the greater?

Factors such as the lack of interest and public participation initiatives can waste management problems, economic and social costs, informing noted.

According to the results, the implementation of training practices to increase citizen participation in infrastructure projects as a major metropolitan wastewater will be effective.

Keywords: Wastewater, Citizenship, Education, Participation.



[1]- Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran (Corresponding Author).

[2] - PhD student, Colour and Environment Group, Science and Technology Institute, Tehran, Iran.

[3]- M.Sc Student, Department of Environment , Faculty  of  Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University (Corresponding Author).

[4]- Associate Professor, Department of Environment, Natural Resources and Desert Studies Faculty, Yazd University.

[5]- Assistant Professor, Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University.

1- M.S.c Graduated  of  the environment, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran (Corresponding Author).

[7]- Graduated of the environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.

1- MSc Graduated of Environmental Pollution, Environmental Sciences Research Institute (ESRI), Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Corresponding Author).

[9]- Assistant Professor of Environmental Sciences, School of Environment, Islamic Azad University, Takestan.

[10]- Assistant Professor of Environmental Planning, Environmental Sciences Research Institute (ESRI), Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran.

1-M.s. student of energy and architecture, Ilam University, Ilam (Corresponding Author).

1- Associete professor, Departmen of Energy &Environment, Azad University, Tehran, Iran (Corresponding Author).

[13]- M.S in Environmental Management, Department of Energy & Environment, Azad University, Tehan, Iran.

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